Topical studies

Theories of human origins

The following 5 main groups represent for the most part the basic categories into which origin models may be divided. Taken from atheistic evolutionism to young earth, recent creationism.

1: Atheistic evolutionism (naturalistic evolutionism):


The universe and all the physical laws of nature were created by chance during the Big Bang about 15 to 20 billion years ago. We exist through a combination of random processes known as “evolution”. There isno purpose or intelligent force which has directed our evolution. We are here onlyby chance , religion is a natural development in our evolutionary ‘progress”, and when we die, we no longer exist.
Examples: Isaac Asimov, CarlSagan , Stephen Jay Gould, John Gribbin , Stephen Hawking, Richard Dawkins,

Arthur N. Strahler .


2: Deistic evolutionism :


A supernatural force created the Big Bang, and set down all the physical laws. This force is no longer involved in the day-to-day operation of the universe. We exist via “evolution”, and although a supernatural force may have initiated the process, we are here by chance.
Examples: Charles Darwin, Albert Einstein, Fred Hoyle, Robert Jastrow .*



3: Theistic evolutionism :


God is the supernatural force who created the Big Bang and set down all the physical laws in order for evolution to occur. He used evolution to “create” the right environment and the right vehicle in which to place a living soul. When the time was right for Adam to appear, Godtook an evolved pre-man , and gave him a spirit and/or soul to createman in the image of God . This theory gives evolution a purpose, and in this way, it differs from Deistic evolutionism.

Examples: B.B. Warfield, James Orr, C.I. Scofield , Derick Kidner , Howard Van Till.


4. Old Earth Creationism :


This category describes theories that accomrnodate the belief in an ancient earth with the belief that God created more-or-less as described in Genesis 1. In all these theories, Genesis is interpreted to provide the millions of years needed for fossil formulations. There are two subcategories under Old Earth Creationism which vary depending on how literal Genesis 1 is interpreted. They are: 4a. The Gap Theory and 4b. The Day/Age Theory.
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4a: The Gap Theory :

The belief that there is a considerable amount of time between Genesis 1:1 and Genesis1:2. During this time the cosmos, which was originally created long before the creation week in Genesis, became without form and void. In the creation week in Genesis, God ” re -created” the earth and told mankind to replenish it. Some proponents of the Gap Theory believe that geological strata were created during the time before the re-creation of the world, and do not believe that Noah’s flood was world wide. This theory has its origin with the founders of modern geology (e.g. T. Chalmers, H. Miller), and is referred to by some as the “ruin-reconstruction” view. This view is found in theScofield Reference Bible, Dake’s Annotated Reference Bible, and the Newberry Reference Bible.

Examples: Thomas Chalmers; Hugh Miller; G.H. Pember (Earth’s Earliest Ages, 1884);

Arthur Custance (Without Form and Void, 1970).


4b: The Day/Age Theory :

The creation days in Genesis describe creative periods of time, not six literal days. During each creative period, God increased the complexity of life by creating new life forms while also changing the earth to accommodate these new forms. There are variations on the Day/Age theory, and they differ according to how much the appearance of new organisms in the fossil record is attributed to God’s direct intervention, or due to the process of God-directed evolution. Some proponents of the Day/Age Theory believe that we are currently in the seventh day (D.A. Young, G. Schroeder). Progressive creationism (H. Ross) is based on the Day/Age Theory.

Examples: BernardRamm , Kenneth Taylor, Millard J. Erickson, James Montgomery Boice , Gleason Archer,

Hugh Ross (Reasons to Believe), Christianity Today, Davis A. Young, Robert C. Newman,Pattle T. Pun.


5: Young Earth, Recent creationism (Scientific creationism):


God created all matter in 6, 24 hour days, sometime about 10,000 years ago. God created everything with the appearance of age. It is in total disagreement with modern scientific dating methods for ages beyond 10,000 years, but is in total harmony with the literal translation of the creation week.

Examples: Henry H. Morris, Duane T. Gish and those associated with the Institute for Creation Research and the

Creation Research Society; Ken Ham (Answers in Genesis); John Mackay (Creation Research , Australia ),

Gary Chiang (If anyone cares).




The Story of Created Beings as Interpreted by Geology .


An example of the day/age theory, It is interesting in the comparison of the sequence of events.


Geological Periods Chief Events of Creation

Correlated with geological periods.

Biblical References















Formation of the hot Earth-mass

Creation of the Earth begins

Earth is without form.

The Earth-mass begins to cool.






Oceans are born.

Darkness surrounds the Earth-mass.

(Gen 1:1 NRSV) In the beginning when God created the heavens and the earth,


(Gen 1:2 NRSV) the earth was a formless void and darkness covered the face of the deep, while a wind from God swept over the face of the waters


(Job 38:4-11 NRSV) “Where were youwhen I laid the foundation of the earth? Tell me, if you have understanding. {5} Who determined its measurements–surely you know! Or who stretched the line upon it? {6} On what were its bases sunk, or who laid its cornerstone {7} when the morning stars sang together and all the heavenly beings shouted for joy? {8} “Or who shut inthe sea with doors when itburst out from the womb? — {9} when I madethe clouds its garment, and thick darkness its swaddling band, {10} and prescribed bounds for it, and set bars and doors, {11} and said, ‘Thus far shall you come, and no farther, and here shall your proud waves be stopped’?












Light comes to the Earth


Early land uplifts.

Life uncertain.


(Gen 1:3 NRSV) Then God said, “Let there be light “; and there was light.

(Gen 1:6 NIV) And God said, “Let there be an expanse between the waters to separate water from water.”

(Gen 1:9 NIV) And God said, “Let the water under the sky be gathered to one place, and let dry ground appear.” And it was so .


Proterozoic Worm Tracks.

First seaweeds.


Cambrian No terrestrial life known.

Trilobites, sponges, shellfish, starfish, worms.

Abundant marine life arrives ( inverterbrates )

(Gen 1:2 NIV) Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters.


Ordovician Corals.




Silurian Land uplift.

Early land vegetation.

Devonian Insects.

Marine Vertebrates.

Trees become forests.

(Gen 1:11-12 NIV) Then God said, “Let the land produce vegetation: seed-bearing plants and trees on the land that bear fruit with seed in it, according to their various kinds.” And it was so.


Carboniferous. Luxuriant vegetation .

Coal deposits

Amphibians .

{12} The land produced vegetation: plants bearing seed according to their kinds and trees bearing fruit with seed in it according to their kinds. And God saw that it was good.
Permian Glacial Period.

Palaeozic life dies out.

Triassic Great climate change

New kinds of life appear.

14 And God said, “Let there be lights in the expanse of the sky to separate the day from the night, and let them serve as signs to mark seasons and days and years,


Jurassic Great reptilian monsters.

First flying creatures.


20 And God said, “Let the water teem with living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth across the expanse of the sky.”

Cretaceous Bees

Modern flowering plants.

Oligocene Early land mammals. God made the wild animals according to their kinds


Miocene Cattle etc. , the livestock according to their kinds, and all the creatures that move along the ground according to their kinds.
Pliocene Modern mammals
Pleistocene Glacial periods.



So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them.