(Lev 4 NRSV) The LORD spoke to Moses, saying,  Speak to the people of Israel, saying: When anyone sins unintentionally in any of the Lord’s commandments about things not to be done, and does any one of them:
 If it is the anointed priest who sins, thus bringing guilt on the people, he shall offer for the sin that he has committed a bull of the herd without blemish as a sin offering to the LORD.  He shall bring the bull to the entrance of the tent of meeting before the LORD and lay his hand on the head of the bull; the bull shall be slaughtered before the LORD.  The anointed priest shall take some of the blood of the bull and bring it into the tent of meeting.  The priest shall dip his finger in the blood and sprinkle some of the blood seven times before the LORD in front of the curtain of the sanctuary.  The priest shall put some of the blood on the horns of the altar of fragrant incense that is in the tent of meeting before the LORD; and the rest of the blood of the bull he shall pour out at the base of the altar of burnt offering, which is at the entrance of the tent of meeting.  He shall remove all the fat from the bull of sin offering: the fat that covers the entrails and all the fat that is around the entrails;  the two kidneys with the fat that is on them at the loins; and the appendage of the liver, which he shall remove with the kidneys,  just as these are removed from the ox of the sacrifice of well-being. The priest shall turn them into smoke upon the altar of burnt offering.  But the skin of the bull and all its flesh, as well as its head, its legs, its entrails, and its dung—  all the rest of the bull—he shall carry out to a clean place outside the camp, to the ash heap, and shall burn it on a wood fire; at the ash heap it shall be burned.
 If the whole congregation of Israel errs unintentionally and the matter escapes the notice of the assembly, and they do any one of the things that by the Lord’s commandments ought not to be done and incur guilt;  when the sin that they have committed becomes known, the assembly shall offer a bull of the herd for a sin offering and bring it before the tent of meeting.  The elders of the congregation shall lay their hands on the head of the bull before the LORD, and the bull shall be slaughtered before the LORD.  The anointed priest shall bring some of the blood of the bull into the tent of meeting,  and the priest shall dip his finger in the blood and sprinkle it seven times before the LORD, in front of the curtain.  He shall put some of the blood on the horns of the altar that is before the LORD in the tent of meeting; and the rest of the blood he shall pour out at the base of the altar of burnt offering that is at the entrance of the tent of meeting.  He shall remove all its fat and turn it into smoke on the altar.  He shall do with the bull just as is done with the bull of sin offering; he shall do the same with this. The priest shall make atonement for them, and they shall be forgiven.  He shall carry the bull outside the camp, and burn it as he burned the first bull; it is the sin offering for the assembly.  When a ruler sins, doing unintentionally any one of all the things that by commandments of the LORD his God ought not to be done and incurs guilt,  once the sin that he has committed is made known to him, he shall bring as his offering a male goat without blemish.  He shall lay his hand on the head of the goat; it shall be slaughtered at the spot where the burnt offering is slaughtered before the LORD; it is a sin offering.  The priest shall take some of the blood of the sin offering with his finger and put it on the horns of the altar of burnt offering, and pour out the rest of its blood at the base of the altar of burnt offering.  All its fat he shall turn into smoke on the altar, like the fat of the sacrifice of well-being. Thus the priest shall make atonement on his behalf for his sin, and he shall be forgiven.  If anyone of the ordinary people among you sins unintentionally in doing any one of the things that by the Lord’s commandments ought not to be done and incurs guilt,  when the sin that you have committed is made known to you, you shall bring a female goat without blemish as your offering, for the sin that you have committed.  You shall lay your hand on the head of the sin offering; and the sin offering shall be slaughtered at the place of the burnt offering.  The priest shall take some of its blood with his finger and put it on the horns of the altar of burnt offering, and he shall pour out the rest of its blood at the base of the altar.  He shall remove all its fat, as the fat is removed from the offering of well-being, and the priest shall turn it into smoke on the altar for a pleasing odor to the LORD. Thus the priest shall make atonement on your behalf, and you shall be forgiven.  If the offering you bring as a sin offering is a sheep, you shall bring a female without blemish.  You shall lay your hand on the head of the sin offering; and it shall be slaughtered as a sin offering at the spot where the burnt offering is slaughtered.  The priest shall take some of the blood of the sin offering with his finger and put it on the horns of the altar of burnt offering, and pour out the rest of its blood at the base of the altar.  You shall remove all its fat, as the fat of the sheep is removed from the sacrifice of well-being, and the priest shall turn it into smoke on the altar, with the offerings by fire to the LORD. Thus the priest shall make atonement on your behalf for the sin that you have committed, and you shall be forgiven.
LOVE AND RIGHTEOUSNESS.
This is the fourth offering and it concerns sin that is committed in ignorance.
Altogether the five illustrate the dilemma of love and righteousness. The first two offerings are voluntary and are the result of loving the Creator, the last two are compulsory and demanded by a righteous God.
On one hand love and life and on the other law and death.
What is the answer?. Peace
Jesus was the only one who could bring this difference into one atonement and so make peace between God and humankind.
(1 John 2:2 NIV) He is the atoning sacrifice for our sins, and not only for ours but also for the sins of the whole world.
The first two were a sweet savour unto God. Voluntary … If any bring
The last two were not so. Compulsory … Let them bring
No one was excused … all had to make an accounting for sin
v.2 “If any soul sin through ignorance”.
v.13 “If the whole congregation sin through ignorance.”
v.22 “If a ruler sin through ignorance.”
v.27 “If the common people sin through ignorance.”
CAN WE STILL IN THIS DAY SIN THROUGH IGNORANCE ?
IGNORANCE … to err, to wander, to go astray, lack of knowledge
.(Hosea 4:6 NIV) my people are destroyed from lack of knowledge. “Because you have rejected knowledge, I also reject you as my priests; because you have ignored the law of your God, I also will ignore your children.
(Acts 3:17 NIV) “Now, brothers, I know that you acted in ignorance, as did your leaders.
(Acts 13:27 NIV) The people of Jerusalem and their rulers did not recognise Jesus, yet in condemning him they fulfilled the words of the prophets that are read every Sabbath.
(1 Cor 2:8 NIV) None of the rulers of this age understood it, for if they had, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory.
(1 Tim 1:13 NIV) Even though I was once a blasphemer and a persecutor and a violent man, I was shown mercy because I acted in ignorance and unbelief.
(Heb 5:1-2 NIV) Every high priest is selected from among men and is appointed to represent them in matters related to God, to offer gifts and sacrifices for sins.  He is able to deal gently with those who are ignorant and are going astray, since he himself is subject to weakness.
(1 Pet 1:14 NIV) As obedient children, do not conform to the evil desires you had when you lived in ignorance.
(1 John 1:6 NIV) If we claim to have fellowship with him yet walk in the darkness, we lie and do not live by the truth.
IGNORANCE AND PRESUMPTUOUS SIN
These are considered separately
Num 15:  “‘But if just one person sins unintentionally, he must bring a year-old female goat for a sin offering.  The priest is to make atonement before the LORD for the one who erred by sinning unintentionally, and when atonement has been made for him, he will be forgiven.  One and the same law applies to everyone who sins unintentionally, whether he is a native-born Israelite or an alien.  “‘But anyone who sins defiantly, whether native-born or alien, blasphemes the LORD, and that person must be cut off from his people.
(Heb 10:26-31 NIV) If we deliberately keep on sinning after we have received the knowledge of the truth, no sacrifice for sins is left,  but only a fearful expectation of judgment and of raging fire that will consume the enemies of God.  Anyone who rejected the law of Moses died without mercy on the testimony of two or three witnesses.  How much more severely do you think a man deserves to be punished who has trampled the Son of God under foot, who has treated as an unholy thing the blood of the covenant that sanctified him, and who has insulted the Spirit of grace?  For we know him who said, “It is mine to avenge; I will repay,” and again, “The Lord will judge his people.”  It is a dreadful thing to fall into the hands of the living God.
GROUPS AND INDIVIDUALS CONSIDERED.
Notice how group intentions and deeds are brought together with the individual in the question of sinful behaviour.
v.13 the whole congregation.
v.22 the rulers (Elders)
v.27 the common people
All are guilty, both individually and corporately. What are the implications of this in regard to our membership of various organisations and clubs ???
WHEN THE SIN IS KNOWN.
God will by the Holy Spirit make known to us the nature of our sinfulness. Entails a willingness to heed and be humble about this matter.
(Psa 139:23-24 NIV) Search me, O God, and know my heart; test me and know my anxious thoughts.  See if there is any offensive way in me, and lead me in the way everlasting.
If we confess our sins (to God not man) He is just and will forgive us. Remember He looks upon the heart so we need to be sincere and truly repentant. (i.e. intend to stop)
Three kinds of creatures in the sin offerings. c.f. all other offerings Bullock, lamb, Kid.
Male and female offerings … atonement for both, Adam and Eve sinned but in Christ there is no male or female.
(Gal 3:28 NIV) There is neither Jew nor Greek, slave nor free, male nor female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus.
There are different offerings for different classes.
Perhaps different responsibilities are involved. The parable of the steward Luke 12:41-48 might be considered.?
(Luke 12:48 NIV) From everyone who has been given much, much will be demanded; and from the one who has been entrusted with much, much more will be asked.
As with all the other offerings the animals were to be without blemish. This points again to Jesus the faultless one, without sin, innocent. It also reminds us the only the best is to be offered to God.
LAY HANDS ON THE HEAD.
Various forms of the laying on of hands. Priest, congregation, common people.
We lay our sins upon Jesus who knew no sin. He died for us.
Identification & substitution.
(Isa 53:6 NIV) We all, like sheep, have gone astray, each of us has turned to his own way; and the LORD has laid on him the iniquity of us all.
(John 8:20 NIV) He spoke these words while teaching in the temple area near the place where the offerings were put. Yet no one seized him, because his time had not yet come.
(Mark 14:45-46 KJV) And as soon as he was come, he goeth straightway to him, and saith, Master, master; and kissed him.  And they laid their hands on him, and took him.
SLAY THE SIN OFFERING.
The offering without blemish had to die.
(Rom 5:10 KJV) For if, when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son, much more, being reconciled, we shall be saved by his life.
(Heb 7:27 KJV) Who needeth not daily, as those high priests, to offer up sacrifice, first for his own sins, and then for the people’s: for this he did once, when he offered up himself.
(Heb 9:14 KJV) How much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge your conscience from dead works to serve the living God?
(Heb 9:26 KJV) For then must he often have suffered since the foundation of the world: but now once in the end of the world hath he appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself.
The inwards were burnt as a sin offering. Speaks of the inward suffering of Jesus.
v5-7 The anointed priest takes the blood and sprinkles seven times in the tabernacle.- before the veil, on the horns of the altar of incense and on the altar of burnt offering.
v16-17 Whole congregation. Sprinkles7 times before the veil, on the horns and on the altar of burnt offering.
v30. Common people
The order of procedure is important:
— Impartation, identification, substitution
— Slaying of the offering
— Burning parts
— Sprinkling of blood.
There is a link between the altar of incense and the altar of burnt offering: cleansing before prayer.
(Psa 66:18 KJV) If I regard iniquity in my heart, the Lord will not hear me:
+ Jesus … “touch me not for I am not yet ascended
+ Priest “no one touched the priest till he sprinkled the blood.
N.B. the priest had access to the Holy Place. He was responsible for the whole of the people.
Only on the Day of Atonement was blood taken into the Most Holy Place. No one entered the MHP without Blood, Incense and Oil. The Shekinah glory was there.
BODY WITHOUT THE CAMP.
Skin, flesh, head, legs, inwards dung – on wood, with fire. (beauty for ashes)
(Isa 61:3 NIV) and provide for those who grieve in Zion— to bestow on them a crown of beauty instead of ashes, the oil of gladness instead of mourning, and a garment of praise instead of a spirit of despair. They will be called oaks of righteousness, a planting of the LORD for the display of his splendor.
v 12. finished with the tabernacle.
(Heb 13:10-16 NIV) We have an altar from which those who minister at the tabernacle have no right to eat.  The high priest carries the blood of animals into the Most Holy Place as a sin offering, but the bodies are burned outside the camp.  And so Jesus also suffered outside the city gate to make the people holy through his own blood.  Let us, then, go to him outside the camp, bearing the disgrace he bore.  For here we do not have an enduring city, but we are looking for the city that is to come.  Through Jesus, therefore, let us continually offer to God a sacrifice of praise—the fruit of lips that confess his name.  And do not forget to do good and to share with others, for with such sacrifices God is pleased.
The law of the sin offering Read Lev. 6
(1 John 1:8-10 NIV) If we claim to be without sin, we deceive ourselves and the truth is not in us.  If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just and will forgive us our sins and purify us from all unrighteousness.  If we claim we have not sinned, we make him out to be a liar and his word has no place in our lives.